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Poland's syndrome is a congenital cause of breast asymmetry in which there are underdeveloped or absent chest muscles and breast bone on one side of the body. In milder cases, Poland's syndrome might not be noticeable until a child reaches puberty, when breast and chest development make missing muscle mass apparent. It occurs much more frequently in males than in females.
Hypomastia describes the failure of one or both breasts to develop correctly. This can result in breasts with a small, pre-pubescent appearance or significantly asymmetrical breasts. Hypomastia may be the result a disorder, hormone problem or trauma to the chest area. This condition can cause self-esteem issues, so even if treatment is not medically necessary, many women with hypomastia elect to undergo a breast augmentation procedure to enhance and even out their breasts.
Hypermastia is an excess of breast tissue, resulting in unusually large and sometimes uneven breasts. More than simply an aesthetic issue, hypermastia may cause many health problems including back and neck pain, skin irritation beneath the breasts, shoulder indentations from bra straps and limited ability to take part in physical activities. Many women with hypermastia seek relief with a breast reduction procedure that removes tissue to create smaller, more comfortable breasts.
Gynecomastia in Males
Gynecomastia is a common condition that affects nearly half of all men, resulting in localized fat and/or glandular tissue in the breasts. For most cases of gynecomastia, the cause is unknown, but this condition may be linked to certain medications or diseases. Many men are embarrassed by this condition and seek treatment to achieve a smooth, contoured chest through male breast reduction. Male breast reduction may be performed using liposuction, surgery or a combination of the two, depending on the amount and type of tissue found in the breasts.
Microtia is a common birth defect that affects one or both ears and involves the absence of a normal external ear. Many patients with this condition are instead born with a small nub or partially developed ear. Treatment for microtia involves reconstructive surgery that recreates the ear for improved aesthetics and functionality. Reconstruction is performed over a series of procedures that may involve repositioning existing ear elements, harvesting cartilage from other areas of the body and using skin grafts to create a normal-looking ear.
The most extreme form of microtia is called anotia, in which there is a complete absence of an ear. In some cases, the middle ear, responsible for transmitting sounds, may also be only partially developed, which can lead to even further complications.
Otoplasty, or ear surgery, aims to reduce the size of larger ears or set prominent ears back closer to the head. This procedure involves sculpting the cartilage to change the appearance of the ears. Although otoplasty can be performed on adults, it is most commonly performed on children between the ages of four and 14, as ears are almost fully grown by age four.
Facial paralysis involves a loss of voluntary muscle movement within the face, which may occur as a result of stroke, brain tumor, infection, trauma, Bell’s palsy or other factors. Patients with facial paralysis may experience drooping of the face, difficulty making facial expressions, twitching, headache and loss of taste. Treatment for facial paralysis depends on its underlying cause, but may include medication, physical therapy or surgery to relieve pressure on the facial nerve or to repair a severely damaged facial nerve.
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